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The Dr. Abigail Ross Foundation for Applied Conservation (TDARFAC)

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The Dr. Abigail Ross Foundation for Applied Conservation (TDARFAC)

Supporting Member of the Lemur Conservation Network

What We Do

The intention of TDARFAC is to bridge the gap between academic breakthroughs in conservation science and applied conservation efforts on the ground by generating actionable conservation interventions. Ultimately, our aim is to support novel applications of techniques and approaches from the natural and social sciences while leveraging existing knowledge to solve real-world problems.

How We Protect Lemurs and Other Wildlife

Grantmaking

Planet Madagascar Women’s Cooperative. The cooperative engages in independent business ventures including circus farming, forest restoration, and bee-keeping in Ankarafantsika National Park.

TDARFAC provides grants to support conservation research and community-based conservation, which aligns with our mission statement and objectives:

  1. building capacity;
  2. amplifying voices; and
  3. partnering with local communities.

TDARFAC supports individuals, collaborations or partnerships, and non-governmental organizations working in non-human primate habitat countries. The foundation’s primary focus is assisting conservationists from low- and middle-income countries as defined by the World Bank and/or people and/or organizations working therein. However, projects based on any non-human primates, their habitats, or any animal or plant species, which share and influence the same landscapes as non-human primates and directly relate to their conservation, are eligible for funding. Grants are awarded based on the guidance and recommendations of the Advisory Council.

Reforestation Corridor Connecting Andasibe-Mantadia National Park and Analamazoatra Special Reserve

Reforestation corridor team collage, EcoVision Village, Andasibe Madagascar.

We are in currently in the first phase of creating a wildlife corridor connecting two of Madagascar’s most important protected areas: Andasibe-Mantadia National Park and Analamazoatra Special Reserve.

These areas are home to various Endangered and Critically Endangered wildlife species, including 12 lemur species. Wildlife populations in the two protected areas are currently not connected due to past (~1960s) deforestation that previously connected these two forests. This is a landscape scale project and hugely collaborative effort between various people and organizations.

Long-term Conservation Goals for this Project

  • Replant 1,500 native tree seedlings per hectare across 233 hectares.
  • Hire ten local community members to prepare land and plant native seedlings.
  • Support a local native seedling nursery.
  • Create a critical native forest corridor connecting some of the most Endangered wildlife populations on Earth.
  • Facilitate community-based ecotourism and research projects to provide long-term employment opportunities for local community members.
See a List of Collaborators for this Project

What Lemur Species We Protect

Diademed sifaka in Andasibe. Photo: Lynne Venart.

Our reforestation corridor project connecting Andasibe-Mantadia National Park and Analamazoatra Special Reserve contains the following species within the landscape:

  • Aye-aye, Daubentonia madagascariensis (Endangered, Population Declining)
  • Black and white ruffed lemur, Varecia variegata (Critically Endangered, Population Declining)
  • Brown lemur, Eulemur fulvus (Vulnerable, Population Declining)
  • Diademed sifaka, Propithecus diadema (Critically Endangered, Population Declining)
  • Eastern woolly lemur, Avahi laniger (Vulnerable, Population Declining)
  • Goodman’s mouse lemur, Microcebus lehilahytsara (Vulnerable, Population Declining)
  • Gray bamboo lemur, Hapalemur griseus (Vulnerable, Population Declining)
  • Greater dwarf lemur, Cheirogaleus major (Vulnerable, Declining)
  • Greater sportive lemur, Lepilemur mustilinus (Vulnerable, Population Declining)
  • Hairy-eared dwarf lemur, Allocebus trichotis (Endangered, Population Declining)
  • Indri, Indri indri (Critically Endangered, Population Declining)
  • Red-bellied lemur, Eulemur rubriventer (Vulnerable, Population Declining)

How We Support Local Communities

University of Antananarivo – ADD students visiting our EcoVision tree nursery for the reforestation corridor project, Andasibe, Madagascar.

Field Training Programs for Malagasy Master’s Students in Lemur Ecology, Behavior, & Conservation

A consortium of international lemur specialists was formed in 2021 to create two parallel Field Training Programs with the intention of assisting master’s degree students at the University of Antananarivo. Our goal is to establish annual training programs at the below field sites to support the next generation of Malagasy primatologists.

Mahatsinjo Research Station in the Tsinjoarivo Forest

Students conducted fieldwork at the Mahatsinjo Research Station within the Tsinjoarivo-Ambalaomby Protected Area, with logistics coordinated through the NGO SADABE. Tsinjoarivo forest is a mid-altitude eastern rainforest with ten lemur species. The landscape at Tsinjoarivo covers an east-to-west gradient from degraded fragments with an incomplete lemur community to intact, relatively undisturbed forest with all lemurs present.

University of Antananarivo – ADD students visiting reforestation corridor project for World Lemur Day with partners EcoVision, Mad Dog Initiative, & Association Mitsinjo.

Ampijoroa Field Station in Ankarafantsika National Park

Students also conducted fieldwork at the Ampijoroa Field Station within Ankarafantsika National Park (ANP), with logistics coordinated through the NGO Planet Madagascar. ANP is a dry deciduous forest ecosystem containing eight lemur species, and also contains networks of forest fragments in which lemurs can be studied.

Awards Program

We honor scientists and activists for exceptional contributions to the field of conservation and preservation of biodiversity. Individuals may be nominated for awards by peers, mentors, and/or colleagues.

  • The Devoted to Discovery: Women Scientist Conservation Award recognizes the extraordinary and cutting-edge scientific work of women in conservation science. Women in science are encouraged to seek nominations.
  • The Advocates for Change: Future Conservationist & Activist Award honours the remarkable achievements of early-career conversationists and activists in applied conservation.

Students, educators, experts, and community activists are encouraged to seek nominations.

 

World Lemur Day booth in Maromizaha, Madagascar.

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Association Mitsinjo

Mitsinjo Logo

Association Mitsinjo


What We Do

Association Mitsinjo was created in 1999 by the residents of Andasibe village in central Madagascar to cater to the growing number of tourists visiting the region. At Association Mitsinjo we work for the conservation of biodiversity and the sustainable development of the Andasibe region (central Madagascar) and beyond. This involves managing the forest station at the Analamazoatra Special Reserve, located next to the Andasibe-Mantadia National Park.

How We Protect Lemurs And Other Wildlife

One of the Indris.

One of the Indri lemurs!

Association Mitsinjo has been managing the forest station at Analamazoatra Special Reserve since 2003, and we have a contract to manage this program until 2037. We aim to preserve and restore 700 hectares of rainforest in this region into pristine lemur habitat.

To date, logging and hunting using snares has almost stopped completely in this area. In addition, by the end of 2022 we have aleady restored almost 500 hectares using native trees grown in the Association’s nurseries. As a result, Indri populations have increased and the area has become a highlight for tourists visiting Madagascar.

Prolemur simus research.

A Greater Bamboo Lemur (Prolemur simus) being held by a researcher.

What Lemur Species We Protect

More than 11 species of lemurs are known to inhabit the two protected areas managed by Association Mitsinjo. The following species are the focus of several Association Mitsinjo programs:

  • Black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata)
  • Greater bamboo lemur (Prolemur simus)
  • Indri (Indri indri)

How We Support Local Communities

As a community-based Malagasy conservation organization, all of our members are from the local community. To facilitate sustainable use of habitat, we have established a long-term management contract for our rainforest site. Preservation of this area, for both people and lemurs, form the core of our sustainability strategy.

We have engaged in a variety of social development and capacity building programs for local communities, including:

  • The construction of a primary school
  • Community-based monitoring of lemurs, birds, and frogs
  • Promotion of ecotourism and novel agricultural techniques
  • The establishment of a lemur research camp
Children planting rainforest trees.

Children planting rainforest trees. Photo: Association Mitsinjo.

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Arol Ecolodge

Arol Ecolodge

What We Do

We sustainably develop ecotourism in the Antongil Bay, Masoala, Makira, Nosy Mangabe. We launched our Ecolodge concept on the western part of the Masoala Peninsula in 2001. So far we have had more than 4000 visitors who have been able to discover the exceptional local terrestrial and marine biodiversity.

How We Protect Lemurs And Other Wildlife

We protect Northern bamboo lemurs by planting bamboo, their food plant, in the Arol Ecolodge surroundings on the edge of Masoala forest. Around 100 bamboos have been planted and this has encouraged bamboo lemurs to visit near the lodge.

Northern bamboo lemur December 2019 Olivier Fournajoux

What Lemur Species We Protect

In the vicinity of the Arol Ecolodge there are Northern bamboo lemurs (Hapalemur occidentalis) which are a focus of our conservation efforts. These lemurs were classified Vulnerable in 2016 (Lemurs of Madagascar Strategy for Their Conservation) and are threatened by hunting and trapping.

How We Support Local Communities

  • By increasing rice production for the local community with the aid of an agricultural technician
  • Since 2007, we have been helping run the village school
  • The village is supplied with hydroelectricity and running water via standpipes with our contribution
  • Village associations gain direct benefits from ecotourism with our visitors

 

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Photography Inspiring Children in Conservation

Photography Inspiring Children in Conservation

What We Do

PICC 2020 students from Ambodiforaha, Masoala,
Madagascar. Photo by Pascal Elison

Our organisation Photography Inspiring Children in Conservation (PICC) is based on the concept of engaging with the natural world through visual arts. Our goal is to inspire Malagasy students to become lemur conservation leaders within their communities by providing them with knowledge of lemur ecology, as well as local conservation issues and solutions. Malagasy students gain skills in photography, illustration, and storytelling, providing an effective foundation upon which they may seek conservation-oriented careers. PICC was designed with a goal of building local capacity for sustainable conservation through educating and empowering both students and the broader community, including local teachers and elders.

The act of creating an image with photography or sketching rewires us to be truly present and see details and beauty on a deeper level of appreciation.

~Kathy West, PICC Director

How We Protect Lemurs And Other Wildlife

Over a two-week period, Malagasy students use customized coloring and activity books, worksheets, field journals, and DSLR cameras to document their local forests and develop scientifically accurate stories and illustrations.
They are encouraged to develop unique lemur conservation ideas, making contributions to their communities using their new skills. A village-wide gathering at the completion of the project celebrates the students’ works and recognizes participants as “Forest Ambassadors”. Equipment remains onsite, accessible to the students and teachers for sustained learning, career development, and conservation work. About 3,000 tourists visit Masoala National Park (NP) per year. One of our goals is to give Malagasy students the opportunity to develop the skills needed to have future careers in ecotourism and conservation, improving their own lives while also protecting lemurs and their habitats.

It is important to foster the development of skills for conservation job opportunities because research has shown that Malagasy people who are involved in ecotourism, and earn their income from sharing wildlife experiences with visitors, will not hunt lemurs and will discourage others from doing so. At the same time, providing training and employability skills to Malagasy students improves livelihoods.

What Lemur Species We Protect

We began our program in June 2020 with the students in the village of Ambodiforaha in northeast Madagascar, adjacent to the stunningly beautiful Masoala National Park, an area rich in biodiversity. This National Park and UNESCO World Heritage site protects as much as 40% of Madagascar’s mammalian diversity. On the Masoala peninsula, 9 out of 10 species of lemurs present are vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, with the only remaining populations of some species found in this protected habitat.

PICC supports conservation of the following threatened lemur species in the Masoala NP and forest:

  • Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) (Critically Endangered)
  • White-fronted brown lemur (Eulemur albifrons) (Endangered)
  • Scott’s sportive lemur (Lepilemur scottorum) (Endangered)
  • Moore’s woolly lemur (Avahi mooreorum) (Endangered)
  • Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis) (Endangered)
  • Hairy-eared dwarf lemur (Allocebus trichotis) (Vulnerable)
  • Masoala fork-marked lemur (Phaner furcifer) (Vulnerable)
  • Seal’s sportive lemur (Lepilemur seali) (Vulnerable)
  • Northern bamboo lemur (Hapalemur occidentalis) (Vulnerable)

How We Support Local Communities

Recognizing that this national park belongs to local communities and the Malagasy people, we aim to help children understand how to identify and maintain healthy ecosystems, as well as to understand the cultural, environmental and economic benefits of protecting lemur habitat.

Pascal Elison teaching PICC 2020 students from
Ambodiforaha, Masoala, Madagascar

Empowering Teachers and Community Elders in Education

In addition to focusing on children, the PICC program includes participation of teachers and elder leaders with traditional ecological knowledge, making the likelihood of program success much higher. This empowers the older community members who have extensive knowledge of native plants and animals and are related to many of the children in the program. Unlike teachers, these elders are seen as local leaders with ancestral ties to the land. This project acknowledges the importance of the Malagasy people’s place in their landscape. We are interested in learning from them, and in returning knowledge to the community through the workshops, books and posters of student writing, illustrations, and photographs. Participating teachers are expanding their knowledge base in order to educate other students and teachers in nearby villages.

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Ary Saina

Ary Saina

What We Do

Ary Saina is a group of Malagasy conservation biologists promoting scientific research and knowledge for the conservation of Madagascar’s unique but imperiled biodiversity.

​Ary Saina was founded in 2017 with the following objectives:

  • Promote and facilitate scientific research in Madagascar
  • Contribute to the capacity building of Malagasy in science
  • Conduct scientific research to enhance biodiversity conservation and sustainable management of natural resources in Madagascar

 

Ary Saina Study Sites by Angelo Andrianiaina

How We Protect Lemurs And Other Wildlife

We lead and participate in several projects related to lemur conservation in Madagascar. Most of our members conduct research on lemur biology and ecology to help conserve lemurs in their natural sites.

The socio-economic development activities we plan to implement to improve livelihoods aim to reduce threats on lemur habitat.

What Lemur Species We Protect

Current projects are conducted in two rainforest sites: (1) in the eastern fragmented forest of Ihofa with a focus on an assemblage of different species lemurs, including the critically threatened indri (Indri indri) and black and white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata); and (2) in the southeastern forest of Ranomafana National Park with a focus on both large-bodied diurnal lemurs like the red-bellied lemur (Eulemur rubriventer) and small-bodied nocturnal lemurs like the brown mouse lemur (Microcebus rufus).

 

How We Support Local Communities

Our current focus is in supporting the local communities living near Ihofa forest in Andasibe. We implement socio-economic development activities to improve their livelihoods. We are in need of funding to support the building of an elementary school in the area. We currently teach children local to our field sites (who often have no opportunity to attend school, with the closest being 8 hours walk away) skills such as writing and counting. We also deliver skills training to empower Malagasy scientists to build a career.

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Impact Madagascar

Impact Madagascar

What We Do

At IMPACT Madagascar we believe it’s not possible to protect the environment without also considering the people who depend on its resources on a daily basis. Since 2013 we’ve been working with local communities to alleviate poverty and provide achievable and sustainable environmental protection through a variety of projects.

We focus our work on five project sites, in five different locations: Ankirihitra (region Boeny), Madiromirafy (region Betsiboka), Mahajeby (region Bongolava), Dabolava (region Menabe), and Vohitrarivo (region V7V). Each of these rural sites is unique in their biodiversity and communities, but across these locations, our projects hold similar objectives. These include reforestation and ecological restoration, lemur and habitat monitoring, environmental outreach and practical environmental education, community development, community health, and community conservation.

How We Protect Lemurs And Other Wildlife

Lemur and habitat monitoring

Our lemur and habitat monitoring includes periodic inventories of diurnal and nocturnal lemur populations located at our project sites. These focus mostly on the mongoose lemur and crowned sifaka (though the surveys are inclusive of all lemurs in the area).

The Sifaka Conservation program aims to save the fragmented forests across the four locations (along the central highlands and northwestern areas), in order to protect crowned sifaka populations and the remaining rare dry and gallery forests. Additionally, our team identifies and monitors the pressures and threats these lemur populations and their habitats face. With identification at each site, we can develop better strategies to combat these harmful actions and to prevent future destruction.

Reforestation

Our activities focused on forest restoration include large-scale community reforestation events. During these events, community members come together and plant native forest and fast-growing tree species in the area. The saplings that are planted are produced by the communities themselves in tree nurseries on site.

Conservation Education

Our conservation education projects constitute an important strategy to address threats to biodiversity and to ensure community participation and the sustainability of conservation actions. This environmental outreach includes awareness campaigns at both school and household levels. Additionally, information sessions take place through multimedia presentations and focus on the fundamental roles of the forest, the causes of destruction and their impact on human life, biodiversity and conservation, environmental laws, the food web, wildlife, and its ecological role, and ecosystem services.

What Lemur Species We Protect

Our conservation work currently focuses primarily on the Mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz) and Crowned Sifaka (Propithecus coronatus), two critically endangered species present at our sites.

How We Support Local Communities

Community Development

To help improve the living conditions of the local population in conservation areas, we have many community development projects that aim to promote income-generating activities within these communities.

We work with the local people in order to increase their farming yield and agricultural production by monitoring and providing practical training in the use of modern farming techniques and improved livestock breeding programs, as well as promoting other alternative sources of income. In addition, we also encourage the production and sale of local produce to boost income within communities. As well as providing a more secure and sustainable future, this approach helps to reduce damage to biodiversity and forests from other farming methods.

Conservation education

Conservation education projects include practical activities such as healthy living, water purification, waste management, and how to recycle various types of waste. This aims to improve health and sustainability.

Establishment and support of VOIs

At each of our conservation sites, we have established local management committees, called VOIs. These committees help to manage the forests, and patrols are run by local people to monitor threats such as illegal logging and poaching, while simultaneously engaging local people in the protection of their forests.

Community Health

Additionally, we work to provide community health initiatives to these rural communities and offer them resources and care they do not otherwise have access to. These activities vary across sites and include medical missions in collaboration with health organizations to provide treatment and medical care, sexual and reproductive health education, and raising awareness about the importance of hygiene and water purification.

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Ny Tanintsika

Ny Tanintsika

What We Do

Ny Tanintsika works to empower communities to conserve lemurs through a multifaceted approach that builds local capacity, addresses livelihoods concerns and promotes stakeholder collaboration and communication.

Lemurs are crucial to Madagascar’s rich and thriving biodiversity. The decline in lemur populations and the rapid extinction of a number of species, due to habitat loss and hunting, is jeopardising this biodiversity.

Currently, a number of forest communities hunt and eat lemurs as a primary source of protein in their diet, or keep them as pets. Although protection legislation exists, it is not widely known, understood nor enforced. Habitat loss due to forest in-migration for ‘slash and burn’ agriculture, deforestation and logging is an equally crucial factor in this project.

How We Protect Lemurs And Other Wildlife

Whilst focusing on Golden Bamboo Lemur (Hapalemur aureus) species, we are gathering data on all primates in the previously unresearched forests of Ambohimahamasina and three neighbouring areas. Data collection on lemurs is conducted by local stakeholders, and forest inhabitants will become lemur monitors to ensure project sustainability.

Additionally, 12 signs encouraging lemur conservation are being erected along Ambohimahamasina’s 3 main forest footpaths crossing to the eastern side of the forest ‘corridor’.

What Lemur Species We Protect

We target lemur taxa that are categorized as being Critically Endangered, and in a listed action plan locality site (the COFAV). The Lemur Conservation Strategy lists the COFAV as being home to 21 lemur taxa of which 6 are critically endangered, 7 endangered, 4 vulnerable, 1 near threatened and 3 data deficient.

COFAV has the highest number of lemur species of any protected area in Madagascar – of which a disproportionate number are in elevated threat categories. However, scientific research on biodiversity has largely been limited to national parks.

Threatened Species Targeted:

  • Golden Bamboo Lemur (Hapalemur aureus): Critically Endangered C2a(i)

Other threatened species benefitting from the project:

  • Southern Ruffed Lemur (Varecia variegata ssp. editorum): Critically Endangered A2cd
  • Milne-Edward’s Sifaka (Propithecus edwardsi): Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
  • Gilbert’s Lesser Bamboo Lemur (Hapalemur griseus ssp. gilberti): Endangered B1ab(i,iii)

How We Support Local Communities

Support is being given to forest inhabitants to make their lifestyles more sustainable, which is beneficial to human communities and nature. Agricultural production on deforested land is boosted through training on improved techniques, with 6 community tree nurseries operational to provide saplings for agroforestry, reforestation and forest restoration to meet both human and lemur needs. Numerous awareness-raising initiatives are combined with promotion of alternative sources of income and protein, including small-scale fish-farming and chicken-rearing, and the capacity-building of Community Forest Management associations to reduce lemur poaching and habitat loss.

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Man and the Environment: Net Positive Impact Program

Man and the Environment’s Net Positive Impact program

What We Do

The main objective of Man and the Environment’s Net Positive Impact program is to ensure long-term forest and lemur conservation, as well as overall biodiversity conservation, through the involvement of local communities. This includes management programs and economic activities in support of the environment.

Net Positive Impact is a program of the Non-Governmental Organization Man and the Environment. We are a French organization working in East and Northwest Madagascar.

How We Protect Lemurs And Other Wildlife

Habitat Protection

As lemurs cannot survive when their natural habitat is in danger, we work on habitat preservation and environmental conservation in the Vohimana, Tsaramandroso and Ambalakalanoro forests by developing environmental programs. Our main actions are to make these sites “protected areas” to ensure their survival. We also monitor species, study their long-term acclimatization and take actions to promote their survival in the zone, through reforestation and agro-forestry.

Ecotourism

Infrastructure to develop ecotourism has been constructed in the Vohimana Forest. The goal is to raise awareness among visitors and the Malagasy community about the site’s biodiversity and protection, and to create a sustainable income source for the local people working on the project. Visitors are encouraged to participate in monitoring species.

Environmental Policy

We promote sustainable lemur conservation through the design of management plans, including local communities’ development and private sector involvement.

What Lemur Species We Protect

Varecia Variegata from the Vohimana forest.

Net Positive Impact operates in three locations.

The Vohimana forest in the Mantadia – Zahamena:

  • Indri Indri indri
  • Diademed sifaka Propithecus diadema
  • Black-and-white ruffed Lemur Varecia variegata
  • Eastern lesser bamboo lemur Hapalemur griseus
  • Red-bellied lemur Eulemur rubriventer
  • Common brown lemur Eulemur fulvus
  • Goodman’s mouse lemur Microcebus lehilahytsara
  • Eastern woolly lemur Avahi laniger
  • Weasel sportive lemur lepilemur mustelinus
  • Greater dwarf lemur Cheirogaleus major
  • Aye-aye Daubentonia madagascariensis
  • Hairy-eared dwarf lemur Allocebus trichotis
  • Brown mouse lemur Microcebus rufus

Indri Indri from the Vohimana forest

The Tsaramandroso community forest in the buffer zone of the Ankarafantsika National Park:

  • Coquerel’s sifaka Propithecus coquereli
  • Milne-Edwards’ sportive lemur Lepilemur edwardsi
  • Western woolly lemur Avahi occidentalis
  • Golden-brown mouse lemur Microcebus ravelobensis
  • Mongoose lemur Eulemur mongoz
  • Gray mouse lemur Microcebus murinus
  • Fat-tailed dwarf lemur Cheirogaleus medius
  • Common brown lemur Eulemur fulvus

The Ambalakalanoro forest in the north-west coast: 

  • Verraux’s sifaka Propithecus verreauxi
  • Common brown lemur Eulemur fulvus
  • Gray mouse lemur Microcebus murinus
  • Fat-tailed dwarf lemur Cheirogaleus medius
  • Mongoose lemur Eulemur mongoz
  • Western lesser bamboo lemur Hapalemur occidentalis
  • Masoala fork-marked lemur Phaner furcifer
  • Western woolly lemur Avahi occidentalis
  • Milne-Edwards’ sportive lemur Lepilemur edwarsi

How We Support Local Communities

Community Partnerships and Sustainability

Net Positive Impact partners with local organizations to ensure projects’ sustainability and community involvement. For the Vohimana project, the partners are different local associations, Mercie Vohimana, Manarapenitra, Zanatany, each specialized in a field. For the Ambalakalanoro project, the partner is the local district. For the Tsaramandroso project, the partners are VOI Mamelonarivo and CIRAD.

Social support

The income generated from ecotourism will be redistributed to the school and the health center that we constructed in a village near Vohimana, Ambavaniasy. The objectives are to improve the living conditions of local communities, enhance education access and reduce risk of disease. Secondly, protecting the forest for ecotourism will be shown to be a potential route to improving living conditions in the area, encouraging villagers to protect it and thus the species living in it.

Eulemur Rubriventer from the Vohimana forest

Sustainable agriculture productivity improvement

The objective is to support environment-friendly agriculture to prevent slash-and-burn farming or other practices jeopardizing biodiversity. We started a program of ginger cultivation with 120 villagers around the forest. A distillery of essential oil has been constructed and is managed by local workers. Ginger seeds have been given to selected farmers and Malagasy firms will buy the production.

The former traditional practices were participating in the destruction of the forest. Slash-and-burn cultures, as well as charcoal production, threaten the forest and the wildlife it shelters. It is clear that other income-generating activities linked to sustainable natural resources’ use could be promoted to support conservation.

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